How do I configure Cisco DCNM so Putty starts when I select to go to the command line of a switch?
If you right click on a switch in the overview section in DCNM, you can go to the command line of that switch, but how do you change the default CLI SSH into Putty (or another telnet / SSH capable tool)?
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DCNM is down. I love the tool, but the downside is that you forget how to use the CLI. I faced downtime of our DCNM appliance and was forced to use the CLI instead. No big deal actually, but I still want to post the commands to use when you need to add new hosts to existing zones.
First you might want to create a new device alias for the new hosts:
device-alias name server1 pwwn 20:11:00:15:b9:00:00:00
device-alias name server2 pwwn 20:11:00:15:b9:00:00:01
And then you want to add the new aliases to the existing (smart) zone:
zone name NameOfZone vsan 123
member device-alias server1 init
member device-alias server2 init
zone commit vsan 123
You don’t need to commit the whole zoneset again, since that one didn’t change. Check it by running:
zoneset activate name ZoneSetName vsan 123
That’s it! there’s not much to it, and can save you a lot of time as well!
Over the years I collected a number of useful CLI commands to control the DMX / VMAX machines I worked with. Even though nowadays Unisphere for VMAX is a useful tool, nothing really beats the command line!
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Creating tdevs and masking them to hosts (storage groups in a masking view) is relatively easy in the Unisphere for VMAX interface, but what if you add a few tdevs of exactly the same size and you want to make sure that the VMware administrator uses the right LUN for each VMFS he’s going to create? One way to make sure he knows which LUN corresponds with what tdev is the Host LUN id. To list the host LUN ids
symaccess -sid 1234 show view mv_some-maskingview-name
or (a bit more verbose)
symaccess -sid 1234 list view -name mv_some-maskingview-name -detail
The second command shows each initiator group nested within other initiator groups as well.
Both generate a table with the following headers:
Dev Dir:Port Physical Device Name Lun Attr Cap(MB)
The column under “Host Lun” shows the Host LUN ids.
Recently I needed to make some edits on vmdk files in order to get rid of a reference to the change tracking files, as mentioned in Gabrie’s post: Cannot open the disk and could not open change tracking file. An SSH connection to a VMware ESXi host was required. SHH was disabled and I needed to enable it temporarily.
How to enable SSH on an ESXi host using the vSphere client
In vSphere, select the host you want to enable SSH on.
Select the “Configuration” TAB, then “Security Profile”. In the upper right select “Properties.
A new window opens, now select SSH (you may need to scroll down a bit) and in the lower right select “Options”.
Again a new window opens and here you can either “Start” or “Stop” the SSH daemon.
A quick heads-up this time about building your own lab environment
Sometimes you just want to run a VNX, Avamar, PowerPath, Data Domain or Isilon as a virtual machine to see how things work, or to write work instructions. And EMC offers a lot of these virtual appliances for free!
Take a look at these:
Prerequisites when adding a new SAN switch to an existing SAN fabric
When using enhanced device aliases, make sure you enable this on the new switch as well:
device-alias mode enhanced
You can verify if this is enabled on an existing switch by this command:
sh run | grep “device-alias mode”
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Smart zoning examples
In my smart zoning post from last February I already presented the way to get started with Cisco smart zoning. I initially planned to give a more detailed calculation on how much time you can save if you were using smart zoning compared to SIST zoning.
I was talking to an EMC SAN instructor (Richard Butler) this week and after I did a little white boarding and used my hands to picture how massive a traditional SIST zone environment would be, we agreed smart zoning is the way to go.
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Previously I wrote about setting the NTP, time and timezone settings in a Cisco switch and now it’s time for the same in a Brocade switch.
It’s in fact not that hard to do. Log in to the CLI and use the following commands:
tsclockserver ntp.domain.ext (make sure the DNS is set up properly first)
This will set the NTP server address in this switch to ip address 18.104.22.168. Set this only on the principal switch, as this switch will propagate the time to the other switches in the fabric.
To set the timezone use the following command:
This will ask for the region and country the switch is located in.
Choose 8 for Europe and 34 for the Netherlands and after verifying the setting, choose 1 (yes) to set the TZ.
Use the “date” command to verify the current time and date and TZ region:
Wed May 13 01:08:32 CEST 2015
This makes life a lot easier when troubleshooting!
If you have multiple datacenters or a multi tenant fibre channel environment and you’re using Cisco FC switches, it’s a best practice to use VSANs to separate the configurations of each location / tenant. To allow storage arrays and / or hosts in different VSANs to communicate with each other Inter VSAN Routing needs to be used.
If you need to have 2 EMC VNX storage arrays “talk” to each other for MirrorView for example over 2 or more datacenters (for data replication purposes that is) or hosts in one DC talk to storage in another DC, using transit VSANs (and therefore IVR) will keep your VSANs with equipment indoors and the slightly more vulnerable VSAN outdoors. If some farmer with his tractor rips your single mode fiber, only the outdoor VSAN will be fractured and the indoor VSANs remain unharmed. And of course communication between the remote sites is interrupted, but the indoor VSANs / fabrics remain unchanged.
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I recently ran into a log time difference at a customer’s site so I want to repeat my blog from last year (Configuring the timezone and NTP). It’s slightly different on Cisco LAN / Routing equipment, but on Cisco MDS SAN switches the DST configuration is set by using the following commands:
clock summer-time CEST 5 Sun Mar 02:00 5 Sun Oct 03:00 60
copy run start
- CEST means Central Europe Summer Time (you can use your timezone name instead if you like)
- the first 5, followed by “Sun” means that the DST will become active on the LAST (5th, sometimes the 4th) Sunday of the month following the day you just named (March)
- 02:00 is the time of day when the DST will become active (time will go forward)
- the second 5, followed by “Sun” means that the DST will become active on the LAST (5th, sometimes the 4th) Sunday of the month following the day you just named (October)
- 03:00 is the time of day when the DST will end (time will go back to normal, backwards, so from 03:00 in my example the clock will go back to 02:00)
You can check the date, time and timezone by typing “show clock”.
The Cisco Fabric Manager or the newer DCNM can be great for creating a limited number of zones and aliases, but when the number of zones exceeds 10 or 20 or so, creating, cloning and editing these can be a pain in the B@TT.
FC-SWITCH-01# conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
FC-SWITCH-01(config)# fcalias name VM101-HBA1 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config)# member pwwn 20:21:22:25:B6:00:00:01
Enhanced zone session has been created. Please ‘commit’ the changes when done.
FC-SWITCH-01(config-fcalias)# fcalias name VM101-HBA1 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config-fcalias)# member pwwn 20:21:22:25:B6:00:00:02
FC-SWITCH-01(config-fcalias)# fcalias name VM102-HBA1 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config-fcalias)# member pwwn 20:21:22:25:B6:00:00:03
FC-SWITCH-01(config-fcalias)# device-alias commit
Create two new zones:
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# zone name VM101-HBA1_VNX-5600-08-SPA6 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# member fcalias VNX5600-08-SPA6
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# member fcalias VM101-HBA1
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# zone name VM102-HBA1_VNX-5600-08-SPB7 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# member fcalias VNX5600-08-SPB7
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# member fcalias VM102-HBA1
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zone)# zone commit vsan 45
Commit operation initiated. Check zone status
Now add the two new zones to a zoneset:
FC-SWITCH-01(config)# zoneset name ZS_VSAN170 vsan 45
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zoneset)# member VM101-HBA1_VNX-5600-08-SPA6
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zoneset)# member VM102-HBA1_VNX-5600-08-SPB7
FC-SWITCH-01(config-zoneset)# zone commit vsan 45
What are the maximum distances using different fiber grades?
This post is meant as an easy reference for when you plan to switch to higher FC or Ethernet speeds or when you’re connecting distant locations and need to order new fiber cables for your rack to rack cabling.
The graphs show the direction where OM-specs are going compared to distances.
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When you encounter a fabric lock, because you accidentally left the GUI or CLI without committing the changes, you can try the following to clear the lock and retry to apply your changes:
- run ‘show cfs lock’ to see who lock`s the fabric
- run ‘clear device-alias session’ to clear the lock when you were doing zoning activities
Instead of the “clear device-alias session” in line 2, another common possibility to get the lock cleared is:
- ‘clear ivr session’ (when you were in the middle of IVR activities)
Other locks can occur, but the device-alias and ivr are probably the most common. At least the ones that I encountered so far.
When you need to look up the current zoning config of a Cisco SAN-switch / VSAN, there’s a number of commands that will help you. Because a “show run” doesn’t always do the trick well, especially if you have a large config. And using the “sh run | i “some text you’re looking for” doesn’t always help as well if you don’t know the exact phrase you’re looking for.
I hope this table helps:
||Displays zone information for all VSANs.
|show zone vsan 100
||Displays zone information for VSAN 100.
|show zoneset vsan 100
||Displays information for the zone set in VSAN 100.
|show zoneset vsan 2-5
||Displays configured zone set information for a range of VSANs (2, 3, 4 and 5 in this case).
|show zone name AZone
||Displays members of zone “AZONE”.
|show fcalias vsan 100
||Displays fcalias configuration in VSAN 100.
|show zone member pwwn 20:00:00:25:b1:34:aa:c2
||Displays membership status of a port wwn. Very good if you’re concerned that 1 HBA is used in more than 1 zone!
|show zone statistics
||Displays zone statistics.
|show zone statistics read-only-zoning
||Displays read-only zoning statistics.
|show zoneset active
||Displays the active zone sets.
|show zoneset brief
||Displays brief descriptions of zone sets.
|show zone active
||Displays the active zones.
|show zone status
||Displays zone status.
||Displays zone statistics.
||Displays the interface-based zones.
It’s just another short post on a single command again. This time I was looking for an easy way to get started on ESRS on the latest OE for Block code or the newer MCx code (33.071 or newer).
First of all you need to set up DNS in your VNX machine. In Unisphere, go to settings and click on “configure DNS”.
Also, if there’s a firewall blocking internet traffic, you need to make sure the storage processors can reach *.emc.com over tcp ports 443 and 8443.
After this you can use the following command on the CLI:
naviseccli -h [SPx ip#] esrsconfig -agentProvision -user [Online Support logon name] –password [Online Support super secret password]
Repeat this for the other SP as well.
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It’s been available since NX-OS 5.2(6), but is the community ready for a change? It seems the majority of SAN managers are still afraid to start using it, but why? the concept is so simple: it looks like the infamous “default zone” has made it’s way back to the storage area network, but with a twist.
When I was introduced to the world of Fibre Channel, over ten years ago, I remember going through the automatic steps of setting up a freshly powered-on SAN-switch and disabling the default zone, because that one makes that all initiators and targets can communicate with each other. And two initiators talking to each other is not done, because on the midrange arrays an initiator (used for data replication) can also be a target and you don’t want ports logging into each other.
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xcopy transfer size
If you’re running an EMC VNX using a lower version than block OE version 05.32.000.5.209, you might want to upgrade to the latest and greatest version (patch 209 or newer). The 209 offers EMC’s latest fixes and enhancements for VAAI performance. Many of the found performance issues have been fixed in the 209 code. However, in some environments sub-optimal performance has been detected with xcopy operations, or in some cases with the performance of non-xcopy IO during xcopy operations to the same pool.
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Changing the time for the weekly heartbeat
People with Clariion or VNX systems installed on site know that these arrays will email “home” (that’s EMC/you) once a week on a seemingly random date/time. Ok, once the day of the week and the time are set, each week the “I’m still alive” email will go out at that time. But what if you don’t want to have that email sent out at Thursday at 2:47AM and you want all of your arrays to send out that email on Saturday at noon sharp? You will need to adjust the parameters. I didn’t find a way to change the weekday, so I’m changing the time less than a day before it needs to run. So if I want it to run on Saturday at noon, I could run this script on Friday after noon. It will pick the next available day automatically.
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Timezone and NTP configuration of a Cisco MDS switch
Using a GUI for configuring purposes isn’t always the best thing to do, although it most certainly provides a level of overview that cannot be obtained on the CLI.
I’ve found out the Device Manager default settings for NTP for example are that IPv4 addresses used to point to an NTP entity is set to “peer” and if you don’t use peer synchronization, but have a dedicated NTP server instead, it’s better to place a check mark on the “server” item. Also if you have several time sources, you can set a preferred one by placing a check mark at the particular entity.
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